Patent Characteristics and Differences of Sports Shoes in Chinese and Foreign Sporting Goods Enterprises

Chinese and foreign sportswear companies sports shoes patent characteristics and differences Date:2015-10-09 17:06
No. 38, No. 5 Patent Features and Differences of Sport Shoes in Chinese and Foreign Sporting Goods Enterprises in September CHEN Jun\ SI Hu-ke\ WANG Lei2 (1. College of Physical Education and Training, Shanghai Institute of Physical Education, Shanghai 200438;2. Library of Shanghai Sport University, Shanghai 200438) Dynamic shoe patents analyzes its space-time, patent quality, technical field, and inventor's cooperation network characteristics. The results showed that the number of patent applications from Nike began to rise from 1974, and domestic companies such as Li Ning began to pay attention to patent application activities in 2007; in addition to the United States, Nike attaches importance to the World Patent Office, the European Patent Office and the Chinese region. Patent protection, while Li Ning and other domestic companies are basically applying for patents in China; Nike has high patent quality, a large number of inventions, and a close network of cooperation. Li Ning and other domestic companies have low patent quality and a small number of inventions, which does not reflect team strength. Lee; Characteristics; Differences First: Chen Jun (1991-), Male, Loudi, Hunan, Master of Science, Shanghai Institute of Physical Education; Tel. As early as 2000, the global sports industry’s total output value reached as much as 400 billion U.S. dollars, and averaged annually. 20% increase in speed. The industrial output value of the sports industry in developed countries such as Australia, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, France and Italy accounts for about 1.0% to 1.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP). China's sports industry started late, although it is currently in a stage of rapid development. However, the manufacturing and sales industries in sportswear industry, including sportswear, sports shoes, sports equipment, and related sports products, which account for the largest proportion in the entire sports industry and have the highest degree of development and competition, are still quite different from those in foreign countries. In this context, if China's sporting goods industry wants to develop under fierce competition, it must pay attention to the technological innovation of the sports industry; and one of the important carriers of technological innovation is the patent. It has become a competition between domestic and foreign sporting goods companies. The more important links. This article intends to analyze the differences between Chinese and foreign sports companies through the comparison and analysis of foreign Nike companies and domestic Li Ning, Anta, and 361 degrees company sports shoe patents, from the patent application year, regional distribution, quality, technical fields, inventor cooperation network distribution, etc. Provide for the development of sports enterprises in our country. 1 Research object and method 1.1 Research object The French Questel-)rbit patent database was selected as the data source. The database can retrieve patent information published by 99 countries and organizations in the world, and conduct patent legal status search. The IPC classification number =*A43B-005* was used as the main search item, and the patentee=*Nike was used for separate search. On the patent filing date as of December 31, 2013, 275 items of Nike and 3 items of Li Ning were selected. 9 Anta patents and 19 patents at 361 degrees 1.2 Research methods Statistical analysis of data of Nike, Li Ning, Anta, and 361 Degrees patent applications, regions, IPC classification numbers, and inventor's cooperation network was conducted through Orbit's own Intellixir system. Visualize the data.Download the data retrieved by Orbit as xls file, and use Excel to create the annual and regional distribution maps of Nike, Li Ning, Anta, and 361 Degrees; the inventor's cooperation network structure diagram is provided by Orbit's own Intellixir system. The characteristics of patent space-time and technical fields have a good guiding role in comparing the technological innovation capabilities of enterprises and R&D hotspots, and the temporal and spatial characteristics of patents reflect the differences in the number of patents of patent companies. Relatively speaking, the quality indicators of patents can be more objective. Scientifically embody the company’s innovative strength, through the comparison of patent quality and network characteristics of R&D teams, To a large extent, it reflects the strength of the company's technological innovation, which is the basis for the comparison of the technical innovation capabilities of Chinese and foreign sporting goods companies based on the research objectives of patent time, space, quality, technology, R&D team, etc. 2 Results and analysis 2.1 Chinese and foreign sports Articles of Manufacture Sports Shoes Patent Features 2.1.1 Patent Time Characteristics Patent applications not only reflect the original technological innovation capabilities of the region, but also reflect the market potential of these results, because almost every patent inventor starts from the patent market. , involving technological change and proliferation 0. Since the application date was set only for the period ending on December 31, 2013, the retrieved patent was based on the time when the patent data was first collected from the Orbit database. The company began to apply for patents in 1972 and did not apply for more than 12 patents in 2003, reflecting the basic slow development of Nike sports shoe patent applications and authorizations in the past 30 years.In 2004, Nike sports shoes patents The number of applications surged and reached 25 by 2006, indicating that The company began to attach great importance to the research and development of sports shoes patents and entered a stage of rapid development, and at the same time paid attention to the protection of intellectual property rights, laying an important foundation for Nike to become the world's largest sports shoe manufacturer. Li Ning, Anta, 361 degrees and other domestic corporate patents The late start of the application has a certain relationship with the establishment of the company (Li Ning Company was established in 1990, Anta Company was established in 1994, 361 Degree Company was established in 2003, and Nike Company was established in 1972), but the lack of R&D strength of the company. Insufficient attention to patent protection is also a major factor. Although 361 Degrees was later than Li Ning and Anta, the number of patent applications in 2012 has reached 10, which attaches importance to the research and development of patented technologies, product-oriented functions, and the use of special materials 2.1 .2 Patent space characteristics A patent family is a group of patents with the same or substantially the same content, multiple applications, announcements or approvals from different countries or international patent organizations. Each patent in the same patent family is Patent family members, referred to as family patents. Patent protection for product sales, patents first. Little can lay a solid foundation for the healthy development of the future market area. The patent strategy refers to the competitive environment facing fierce changes and severe challenges. By fully utilizing patent information, analyzing the status of competitors, advancing the development of patented technologies, protecting their own technological advantages, and obtaining patented competitive advantages and long-term survival, Continuous development and overall planning H. Nike applied for 230 patents in the United States, 129 in the World Patent Office, 127 in the European Patent Office, 85 in China, 54 in Canada, 49 in Japan, and 33 in Germany. Australia has 23 items. Three Li Ning companies, 9 Anta companies, and 19 patents of 361 degrees were applied in China. Nike’s patent applications are widely distributed around the world. This shows that Nike attaches great importance to the company’s patent strategy and focuses on long-term planning. This has created conditions for its successful opening of markets in various countries and is conducive to the protection of intellectual property rights in the applications. In contrast, Li Ning, Anta, and 361 Degrees are basically applying for patents in their own countries, which is not conducive to their exploration of overseas markets. 2.1.3 Quality characteristics of patents The patent quality of the four companies was observed by selecting the number of PCT patents (number of patent cooperation agreements), number of citations, frequency of citations, and IPC coverage. Among them, PCT patents refer to the submission of international patent applications through the Patent Cooperation Treaty approach. At the same time, they seek for multinational patent protection within the scope of PCT member states. This indicator reflects, to a certain extent, the technological innovation capabilities and market share of enterprises in the international market. The number of citations refers to the others listed in the patent documents and related to this patent application, reflecting the relevance of the technology to prior art or basic research. Cited frequency refers to the more significant influence that patents have had on subsequent patent innovations. IPC coverage refers to the breadth of the technical fields covered by patents. Each IPC represents a specific technology category. The more coverage, the more complicated the technical composition and the higher the technical content. For the four indicators, *PCT patents “indicators need to be obtained from the PCT search database of the World Intellectual Property Office (Table 1).” Table 1 Nike, Li Ning, Anta, 361 Degrees Patented Sports Shoes Patent Quality Characteristics Company Patent Quality Index PCT Patent Number Citations Citation frequency IPC coverage Nike Anta Li Ning Table 1 shows that Nike’s patent performance in all four indicators is better than the other three companies, namely, the international technological innovation and share, the correlation with previous science and technology, and the impact of technological innovation. In terms of technical complexity, China Sportswear Co., Ltd. has patents on sports shoes not only in terms of quantity, but also in Nike, and there are significant differences in the quality of patents. 2.1.4 Technical Characteristics The International Patent Classification (IPC) is The Patent Technology Classification System developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization includes departments, major categories, subcategories, main groups, and subgroups. This paper is in accordance with Section A43 (Agriculture)-A43 (Shoes)-A43B (Features of Footwear, Parts of Footwear) - A43B005/00 main group (sports shoes) classification procedures were searched. Since the search method is refined to the main group, the patents issued include both the main group and the subgroup, and also include many family patents, because the focus is on the A43B005/00 main group (sports shoes). The patents on the category (footwear fasteners or accessories) are not listed in this paper (Table 2) Table 2 Nike, Li Ning, Anta, 361 Degree Company Sports Shoes Patents and Related R&D Focus (A43B) Name) Patent No. Serial No. (Category Name) Patent No. 013/14 (Shoe sole featured by structural shape) 2007/08 (Shoe with or without closure) 023/00 (upper; boot leg; reinforcement) Etc.) 2007/14 (Shoes with support foot parts) 2013/14 (Shoe soles characterized by structural shape) Nike Company 013/18 (Elastic Sole) 361 Degree Company 3007/00 (Shoes with health or hygiene equipment) (Top 10) 007/14 (shoes with support foot) (top 10) 3013/18 (elastic sole) 023/02 (upper; boot leg) 003/00 (shoe featured by shape or use) 4001/10 (rubber shoes) 4003/06 (covered shoes; upper separable Shoe) 4007/10 (with shoes that can be closed in the middle of the shoe) 013/18 (elastic sole) 013/14 (sole featured by structural shape) ANTA (first 7 positions) Li Ning (first 7 positions ) 3023/00 (uppers; bootlegs; reinforcements, etc.) 007/14 (shoes with support feet) 3023/22 (supports for the uppers or bows of the uppers) 023/02 (uppers; bootlegs) 007/ 32 (shoe with damping device) 3023/04 (single shoe upper; upper with embedded support) The main target of the company's patent strategy is to occupy the market. It is through the formation of technical barriers to ensure that enterprises are in a dominant position in the fierce market competition. 0. Nike has 227 sports shoes patents (A43B-005/00), and the related key technical areas are 3 main groups: sports shoes (A43B-013/00), uppers, boots, reinforcements, Other single shoe parts (A43B-023/00), shipped with the shape or use -003/00). At the same time, it also deals with the shoe soles (A43B-013/14), elastic soles (A43B-013/18), sports shoes (A43B-007/14) with supporting foot parts, and soccer shoes (A43B). -005/02) etc. In contrast, 361 Degrees has 19 sports shoe patents (A43B-005/00), and there are also many main groups involved in related technical fields, but the number of patented sports shoes is not as good as that of Nike. Li Ning Company has only 3 sports shoe patents (A43B-005/00). Sports shoes (A43B-003/00) and shoe soles (A43B-013/00) featuring the main group-related shapes or applications should be enlarged. Research and development. Anta has 9 sports shoes patents - 005/00). The development of sports shoes (A43B-003/00) characterized by shape or use should be increased. Li Ning, Anta, and 361 Degrees have not involved or are less involved in the research and development of sports shoes (A43B-003/00) and football shoes (A43B-005/02) featuring the structure or use, while the uppers and leg (A43B- There are also fewer patents on 023/02). Due to the small number of patents for sports shoes research and development, the narrow technical field, and the lack of core technologies, it often leads to the lack of obvious advantages of sports companies in China and low market share at home and abroad. 2.1.5 Characteristics of R&D Team From the perspective of social network science, due to the change of cooperative member activities in the cooperative network, the network structure changes, which in turn affects the result of collective behavior, that is, organizational knowledge sharing of the cooperative network. Enterprise invention patents are gathered from different disciplines of talents to cooperate in research and development, and form a small technological group in the process of cooperation. 68. Because Nike participates in a large number of research and development, during the composition, we chose the least number of contacts between inventors. More than 3 times. The results show that the inventors of Nike have a very close relationship, in which P Ogg cooperated with other inventors to develop 17 patents, Bruce J. Kilgo and B*D Baker 12 patents, Toby D. Haffield And S Cavalier 10 patents. Through comparison, compared with Li Ning and Anta Company, the inventor of 361 Degrees was relatively simple, and the three inventors (up to 10 patents) were Ding Wu, Huang Huihuang, Huang Baoshou, and were mainly involved in sports shoes. These three individuals carry out research and development. The distribution of ANTA's inventors is relatively balanced. Yang Li, Yan Guoqing, and Wang Youcheng (each with 4 patents) have invented patents for sports shoes. Li Huiwen, the inventor of Li Ning Sports Shoes, has two patents, one each of Xu Xinming and Lin Minqing. As we all know, the development of enterprises is inseparable from technological innovation, and the key to innovation lies in talent. The core layer of Nike’s sports shoe research and development plays an important role in maintaining the stability of the team’s network structure and the sustainability of research and development content. 69. Through the analysis of the cooperative network structure, Nike’s company has many inventors and core members in the patent research and development of sports shoes. There are many interactions between them, which fully demonstrates the advantages of team cooperation in the patent research and development of sports shoes. However, there are few R&D personnel in China's sportswear companies and there is not much cooperation among small groups. 2.2 Differences in sports shoes patents between Chinese and foreign sportswear companies 2.2.1 Patent space-time differences The number of patent applications filed by Nike from 1974 to 2013 is basically on the rise, while the patent applications filed by Li Ning, Anta and 361 Degrees from 2007 are basically on the rise. However, due to the late start of patent application for R&D in domestic enterprises, there is a significant difference from Nike’s patent applications. Foreign sporting goods companies attach importance to the protection of intellectual property rights on a global scale. The company’s core technologies will be applied for protection in the world's major patent agencies. In this study, Nike’s operating revenue was approximately US$20 billion in recent years, of which North America (United States and Canada) accounted for 40%. It is still the company’s most important sales market, and its patent protection is also the largest. Sales in Western Europe accounted for 16%, while in China it accounted for 10%. These regions are also the two most important patent protection areas except North America. Nike’s patent application situation is in line with the importance of its market. Similarly, China’s sporting goods companies are focusing on the domestic market. For example: Li Ning's revenue in 2012 was RMB 6.7 billion, of which international market sales accounted for only 2.4%. In terms of patent applications, Li Ning sports shoes patents are all Chinese patents, and Anta and 361 degrees companies have similar development models with Li Ning. China's sports enterprises have fewer foreign patent applications and little market interest, which has a certain relationship with the international city layout and sales channel restrictions. 2.2.2 Differences in Patent Quality Patent quality indicators reflect the degree of patent innovation. Foreign companies have applied for patent protection in the World Intellectual Property Office through patent cooperation treaties for invention patents with high technological content, while Chinese companies have not received sufficient attention. Although PCT patent applications have gradually increased in recent years, they have lagged behind. Countries such as the United States, Japan, and South Korea do not match the status of a large patent country. At the same time, high-quality patents have a rich number of citations, first developed on the basis of a large number of previous scientific research and technological inventions, and have important value for other technical inventions. In addition, high-quality patents are rich in technical classification systems, and patents can be assigned to several patent classification numbers; on the contrary, lower-quality patents only involve one or two technical classifications. The high degree of cross-convergence between technologies is an important feature of today's science and technology development. Innovative inventions in a single technology field are increasingly difficult, and innovative inventions based on multiple technology fields are receiving increasing attention. The results of this study show that the awareness of intellectual property protection of Chinese companies using the PCT is relatively weak, the technical influence in the industry is very low, the level of technological innovation in the technology sector is not enough, and the core competitiveness of the industry is lacking. This has led to the There is a big difference in foreign countries. 2.2.3 Differences in technology areas The number of patents owned by enterprises, their quality, and their ability to develop and utilize patent information, not only reflect the company's technological level and operating scale, but also are important indicators for measuring the competitive advantage of enterprises. M. Research Shows that: sole technology is the core of sports shoes, Nike company is relying on soles technology started, its unique air cushion shoes is directly occupy the foundation of the market. In addition to air cushion technology, liquid cushion technology and rubber spikes are also the focus of Nike's research and development. Nike company's main group of shoes related to sports shoes (A43B-013/00), grouped in the structure of the shape of the sole (A43B-013/14), elastic sole (A43B-013/18) occupied the patented research and development of sports shoes Most of it. In recent years, smart sports shoes integrating chips and sensors have become the focus of Nike's research, and have also led the integration of sports shoe manufacturing and information technology. In contrast, China's sports shoe manufacturing enterprises still remain at the traditional polymer processing technology level. Due to the monopoly of foreign companies in sole technology, it is difficult for Chinese enterprises to form technological breakthroughs. In addition, the patents for sports shoes in China are mainly utility model patents and design patents, while the invention patents only account for 23.5%. Foreign companies mainly use invention patents. Research on sports-related patents also confirms this point. 111. This patent search has not yet found three domestic sports goods companies involved in the study of smart sports shoes, and information technology has not appeared in patents. 2.2.4 Differences in technical teams The close cooperation network facilitates the dissemination and sharing of knowledge. The innovation and development of patented technologies in the field of information technology are basically started from the close cooperation between the research team and the inventor. M. In Nike In the company's patented invention of sports shoes, PW * Ogg, Bruce * J * Kilgore, B * D * Baker, Toby * D Harfield, S Kavalier is the core figure in Nike's team. Nike's R&D team is intensively networked, allowing small groups to collaborate widely. The integration of different talents makes the entire team's network knowledge more complete, which is conducive to improving its technological innovation capabilities. Among the 361-degree companies, Ding Wu, Huang Huihuang, and Huang Baoshou are the core characters in patent research and development of sports shoes. The patents for invention are the most, but the links with other members should be strengthened. The reason for the difference in corporate efficiency is the difference in the corporate network structure. M. From the domestic inventor's R&D cooperation network structure, we can see that there are deficiencies in the talent construction of the R&D team in China's sports companies, and there are very few cooperative research and development of small groups, so that the knowledge is mutually exclusive. The lack of opportunities for sharing, transmission, and collision has also led to great differences between China's sports goods companies and foreign companies. 3 Concluding remarks In order to survive and develop in the competitive environment of fierce economic globalization, all types of sporting goods companies in the sports industry in China must continuously track and collect intelligence on the research and development of sporting goods patents from foreign advanced companies. The technology development and characteristics of foreign companies' R&D products were discovered, thereby strengthening their own technological R&D and gradually forming new growth points for related products. The success of U.S. Nike’s patent research and development has benefited from its implementation of a patent strategy worldwide. China's sporting goods companies should closely rely on and follow the domestic intellectual property legal system, actively implement the sports patent strategy, and fundamentally guarantee the R&D investment in related sporting goods and the construction of talented personnel, and grasp the key technologies of R&D products. At the same time, China’s sporting goods companies should also actively go out to actively apply for patents in the international market, strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights in foreign countries and the layout of new technology products, increase the core competitiveness of sporting goods in domestic and foreign markets, and promote China’s sporting goods. Industry transformation and upgrading.

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