System description The increasing shortage of water resources has become a global problem. The need for human survival and development when saving water and achieving efficient water use is also a global economic and social need. As one of the 13 water-poor countries in the world, the lack of water resources has posed a serious threat to China â€™s social development, and has even become a â€œbottleneckâ€ for economic and social development. Vigorous development of water conservation is not only a revolutionary measure, but also our country â€™s One of the basic strategies. Agricultural water occupies 70% of China's total water consumption. The problems of low agricultural irrigation efficiency and water waste are widespread.
At present, the national irrigation water utilization rate is about 43%, and the unilateral water and grain productivity is only about 10 kg, which is much lower than the developed countries â€™irrigation water utilization rate of 70-80%, and the unilateral water and grain productivity is more than 2.0 kg. Therefore, the development of water-saving agriculture, Improving agricultural water use efficiency is an important part of China's water-saving strategy. The water-saving irrigation automation system adopts the principle of adapting to local conditions and chooses different irrigation facilities according to different needs of different regions and different crops, and uses advanced technologies such as computers, wireless data communication, acquisition controllers, sensors to monitor and manage farmland irrigation to ensure timely Appropriately meet the water required for crop growth to achieve the purpose of water-saving irrigation and water-saving irrigation automation. System architecture This plan gives the basic framework of a water-saving irrigation automation system, which is mainly composed of the central main control system, acquisition control module, wireless communication module, soil moisture sensor, meteorological observation station, solenoid valve and other equipment. The specific structure block diagram As follows: System introduction From the frame diagram of the water-saving irrigation automation system, we can see that the system can be divided into four parts: sensors and solenoid valves, acquisition control, data transmission and control center. Now we will further describe each part:
1. Sensors and solenoid valves: data collectors and performers of system automation functions. A sensor is a device or device that can sense a specified measurement and convert it into a usable output signal according to certain rules. The system mainly includes a soil moisture sensor for measuring soil moisture, a nutrient meter for measuring nutrients, a rain sensor for measuring meteorological elements, an air temperature and humidity sensor, a wind speed sensor, a wind direction sensor, etc .; solenoid valves are automated execution devices in this system Can be connected to water pumps, nutrient supplement equipment, etc.
2. Collection control equipment: refers to the data collection control module that controls the data collection equipment and executes the work of the equipment. The main functions are: to control the operation status of the data collection equipment through the setting of the crop decision irrigation software; according to the instructions issued by the crop decision irrigation software , Control the opening / closing of the solenoid valve.
3. Data transmission: The wireless transmission module is adopted in this system. The wireless transmission module can transmit the data of the user equipment connected to it to a host in the Internet through the GPRS wireless network, and can realize the transparent transmission of the data remotely.
4. The control center is mainly composed of a computer and crop decision-making irrigation decision-making software. The crop decision-making irrigation software is the data receiver and the command issuer, and is the soul of the entire system. It mainly consists of the following functions: system configuration, function setting: setting the data collection time period , Collection interval, control system execution conditions and other parameters; data storage display, printing and other operations: the collected data is displayed in real time, can be expressed in graphs and can perform printing and other operations; Send instructions: send instructions to the data collection through the wireless transmission module The control module controls the opening or closing of the solenoid valve; automatic irrigation function: according to different regions, different crops in different growth stages of different water requirements, set the corresponding parameters, when the value is below or exceeds a certain range, automatic Turn on the irrigation function. Automatic nutrient replenishment function: In soilless cultivation, according to the different nutrient requirements of different crops in different growth stages, set the corresponding parameters, when the value is below or exceeds a certain range, automatically add the corresponding nutrients. Automatic alarm: It can set the normal operating parameters of the equipment and the range of farmland meteorological factors to realize the alarm function of equipment failure or meteorological factors drastic changes. Conclusion The water-saving irrigation automation system develops the traditional full irrigation to the inadequate irrigation, detects and predicts the water use in the irrigation area, and realizes dynamic management. The system uses sensors to collect soil moisture information, meteorological information and crop growth status, real-time remote monitoring of farmland irrigation water consumption through a wireless network, and irrigation and replenishment of nutrients according to crop needs.
Its main advantages are:
1. Different irrigation methods can be selected according to the specific conditions of the system construction area, which maximizes the utilization rate of irrigation water;
2. Adopting wireless network technology, realizing remote monitoring of farmland irrigation, reducing labor intensity;
3. An expert decision-making system can be introduced into the crop irrigation decision-making software to quantitatively evaluate the water demand information of different crops in different regions at different growth stages;
4. A flow meter is added to the irrigation equipment to accurately control the amount of irrigation water. The system satisfies the demand for improving the utilization rate of irrigation water in high-efficiency agriculture and precision agriculture, achieves the purpose of water-saving irrigation and realizes the automation of the irrigation process, and has great promotion and application value.
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